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Rainfall

South-west Monsoon: (June to September): The imaginary lines that divide the year into two equal parts run parallel to the Western Ghats and the coast. The Asian land mass surrounded by cold oceanic water gets heated up during summer and the pressure created in the atmosphere moves the south-western monsoon. The part of Asian continent spread over a large area right from Sudan of East Africa to Rajasthan and West Bengal is subjected to a very high pressure during winter seasons, while, in summer (April to May) the pressure substantially gets lowered. The south-east winds at the end of May move from south to north of the equator as south-west moisture laden winds advance toward the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal. This is known as South-Western Monsoon. The south-west winds absorb a great amount of moisture over a considerable height in the atmosphere before reaching the coastal part. It is the moisture laden monsoon currents when strike against the ghats leads to heavy downpour along the western coast and the neighboring areas of Western Ghats.

North-east Monsoon (October to December): While north-east monsoon commences from October, at the same time withdrawal of south-west monsoon is noticed. There will be change in the air pressure over the Asian continent including India. When the northern states experience high pressure, it is reverse the case in the southern part of the subcontinent. The low pressure starts developing over Bay of Bengal. This leads to changes in the wind and the north-east wind blows over India and its neighbouring parts. In their early stage, winds which originate on the land are generally drier and on their way absorb the moisture from the Bay of Bengal. When they strike the eastern coast of South India the north-east monsoon brings rains. The coastal part of the State receives as much as 200 to 300 mm. of rains, but this forms just 10% of the annual rainfall in coastal and the ghat sections. Half the amount of rain of this season falls in October itself. Dakshina Kannada district and Udupi district receive 150 to 200 mm. of rainfalls and it rains less in November compared to the month of October. Further decrease in rainfall occurs during the month of December.

Winter (January to May): Generally winter is almost a dry season in the State with very little rainfall. The summer (March to May) for its most part is characterized by dry weather with scanty rainfall. But greater changes are to be seen in the month of April. It rains nearly 150 mm. at the southern tips of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi district. Half the amount of rainfall of this season is received in the month of May itself.

Depression and Storms: Storms are more frequent in the Bay of Bengal than Arabian Sea. On an average, at least two major storms strike the eastern coast of South India or almost nearby parts. Strangely on an average not even two storms strike the western coast annually. Only few storms strike the coast where upon they become weak and cross the Peninsula, while passing the Arabian Sea may turn to storms again. It is this condition that renders into stormy rains in the coastal area of Karnataka

Pressure and Wind:Generally wind blows from west to southwest during south-west monsoon season and from northeast to east during north-east monsoon season in the State. While pressure increases in North India during winter, it declines in the South. The pressure is on the lower side during winter season, and wind blows from northeast or east direction. There is decrease in the pressure beginning from March but by April the situation is reversed, where North India experiences low pressure while it is high in South India. The pressure further weakens during March and April in the State, and light wind blows towards west in the evenings.