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Estuary and River Systems
Mulki and Pavanje Estuary System: The mangrove occurring on either side of the river is greatly damaged since there is heavy cutting for fuel wood. However, thick mangrove has managed to survive on the banks of Pavanje river near Kolunayalu. The important species found are Rhizophara mucronata, Avicennia alba, Excoecaria agallocha, Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Sonnerata caseoloris and Aegiceras corriculatum. The low lying land mass is surrounded by Acanthus ilicifolius giving an impression of an island. These get submerged when there are high tides and are unravelled by low tides. Avicennia Alba being the important species near Chitrapu reaches up to a height of six meters. While, banks are proliferated by Acanthus Ilicifolius. Rhizophara mucronata is the main species found in Sasihitlu, Haleyangadi and Pavanje areas. Mangroves suffer heavily due to uncontrolled clearance for fuel wood. In such areas a fern like Acrostichum aureum becomes the second important species growing in salty water.
Udyavara River:Mangroves have flourished on the banks of Udyavara, particularly at Katapadi, Yenagadde, Udyavara, Jarakodaru, Mattu, Pitrodi, Kadekar and Kidiyur areas. The important species found here are Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia officinalis, Excoecaria agallocha, Avicennia alba, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia Candes, Asegiceras corniculatum, Sonneratia alba, Acanthus ilicifolius and Clerodendrum ineme. Acanthus ilicifolia has proliferated along the river line and surrounding the small islands. Banks of Udyavara river near Mattu is suitable for regeneration of mangrove. Here one could see maximum growth of mangrove to a height of 5.5 m. The important species found here are Rhizophora mucronata, Kandelia Candal, Aegieenas corniculatum, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Avicennia alba. The rare species like Excoecaria agallocha near Pitrodi have attained a height of seven metres and is considered as an ideal place for regeneration of mangrove.
Swarna, Seetha and Khodi Estuary System: Today, the rare mangrove coverage along the banks of Swarna is facing severe problems due to the construction of permanent embankment, establishment of many jute factories and unabated cutting of trees. The mangrove coverage is very scarce along the banks of Seetha river. Important species found around Bokkapatna and Haradi are Rhizophora mucranata, Avicennia alba, Aegiceras corniculatum and Sonneratia alba and the species from Hangarakatte, Irodi, Parampalli and Kotatattu on the banks of Kodihole are Rhizophora mucranata, Avicennia alba, Sonneratia caseolaris, Aegiceras corridulatum and rare species include Avicennia officinalis, Bruguiera cylindrical. Species like Acanthus ilicifolius are found on the banks of estuaries or small islands and can thrive well provided proper measures are taken for their conservation. Mangroves are flourishing well in lagoons and around coral reefs, where diversity of mangrove coverage could be noticed. At many places, mangroves are cleared from the edges of the estuaries for cultivation.
Chakra, Haladi and Kollur Estuary System: Before Chakra, Kollur and Haladi rivers join the sea, there is a dense vegetation 0f mangroves near Kundapur. The estuary system spreading over 30,000 sq. km. has encouraged mangrove forest. The important species found here are Rhizophora conjugate and Acanthus ilicifolius. The measurements have shown that in the intertidal zone about 20 cm. thick mud and in the lowest strata of the low tidal zone about 20 cm. thick mud is deposited. The main constituents of the mud are made up of deciduous leaves and barks of Rhizophora and Avicennia. The farmers near the coast use this mud as manure for their land. No big mangrove cover of Rhizophora mucronata are seen in the estuary margin of Sira and Koppala. But, the eco system of Kodi has supported Rhizophora mucronata, which grows parallel to the banks. Here, trees growing up to a height of 10 m. have been reported. Dense mangrove cover is observed for about 20 to 25 m. distance from the river banks. Near Hoderahobli, Koni and Angali, which enjoy the back water environment species like Acanthus ilidifolius, Rhizophora mucronata, Kandelia candel and avicennia alba have been reported. Species like Lumintzera racemosa are found in the small islands of the river. There are plenty of Lumintzera racemosa in a small island called Kamastara kaduru. Mangroves have been cleared in many places for firewood. Species like Rhizophora mucronata are grown for protecting the inland areas.
Baindur River: Dense mangrove forests have flourished near Paduvari which is well within the Baindur river environment. The important species recorded here are Rhizophora mucranata and Sonneratia caseolaris, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Rhizophora mucronata, Aegikceras orriculatium, Excoecaria agallocha and Avicennia alba are represented on a small scale. On the margin of the river bank Acanthus ilicifolius shows profuse development. Similarly, dense growth of Rhizophora mucronata is found near Uppunda.
Shirur River: The ecology around Shirur river has encouraged species like Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Sonneratia alba and Avicennia alba. Of the rare species of the mangroves, the important ones are Luminitzera racemosa, Ceriops decandra, Bruguiera cylindrica and Avicennia marina. On the margin of the river bank Acanthus ilicifolius is found on a large scale. Intense fishery has destroyed the mangrove cover to a great extent. Mangrove has a variety of use - as food, fodder, timber, firewood and for the manufacture of the paper, pulp, tannin as well as alcohol. Species such as Rhizophora mucranata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza are considered to be suited for the construction of boats, since the timber from these species are believed to have long life. The barks of the species Bruguiera, Rhezophora and Sonneratia have commercial use and these fall prey when other kinds of fuel wood are not available. Almost all the mangrove vegetation is used for the manufacture of charcoal, paper and pulp.